So business finance means investing borrowing and spending of money with proper manner so for the operation of a business. The Extra process enables applicants who have not been offered a place, or have declined all offers received, can use EXTRA to apply for other courses that still have vacancies before Clearing starts. The Extra process normally operates from late February until the end of June and Applicants should use the Course Search facility at UCAS to find which courses have vacancies.
As for opportunity cost, even the majority of jobs that a Master’s student could get, the starting salary is 80-90ish. The starting salary for a PhD is 100+. Since you’re paid to go to school anyway, it doesn’t take too long to make it worth your while from a financial perspective alone.
It seems there are two schools of thought on the math needed for an Econ Ph.D. program: (1) Basic calculus and statistics, or (2) theoretical courses on par with a math major (e.g. Real Analysis, Metric Spaces, Topology, etc.). Can this be attributed to area of specialization, or the rigor of the program? For example, the prerequisites to understand, say, labor economics would likely be very different from game theory or econometrics.